8.
Assessing Product Reliability
8.1. Introduction 8.1.5. What are some common acceleration models?


Many useful 1, 2 and 3 stress models are simple Eyring models. Six are described  This section will discuss several
acceleration models whose successful use has been described in the literature.
This model, used for capacitors, has only voltage dependency and takes the form: $$ t_f = AV^{\beta} \,\ , . $$ This is a very simplified Eyring model with \(\alpha, \Delta H,\) and \(C\) all 0, \(S = \mbox{ln} V\), and \(\beta = B\). In some cases, voltage dependence is modeled better with an exponential model: $$ t_f = A e^{BV} \,\, . $$ Two Temperature/Voltage Models Temperature/Voltage models are common in the literature and take one of the two forms given below: $$ t_f = A \cdot \mbox{exp} \left( \frac{\Delta H}{kT} \right) \cdot V^{\beta} $$ or $$ t_f = A \cdot \mbox{exp} \left( \frac{\Delta H}{kT} \right) \cdot e^{BV} \,\, . $$ Again, these are just simplified two stress Eyring models with the appropriate choice of constants and functions of voltage. Electromigration is a semiconductor failure mechanism where open failures occur in metal thin film conductors due to the movement of ions toward the anode. This ionic movement is accelerated high temperatures and high current density. The (modified Eyring) model takes the form $$ t_f = A \cdot J^{n} \cdot \mbox{exp} \left( \frac{\Delta H}{kT} \right) \,\, , $$ with \(J\) denoting the current density. \(\Delta H\) is typically between 0.5 and 1.2 electron volts, while an \(n\) around 2 is common. ThreeStress Models (Temperature, Voltage and Humidity) Humidity plays an important role in many failure mechanisms that depend on corrosion or ionic movement. A common 3stress model takes the form $$ t_f = A \cdot \mbox{exp} \left( \frac{\Delta H}{kT} \right) \cdot V^{\beta} \cdot R H^{\gamma} \,\, . $$ Here \(RH\) is percent relative humidity. Other obvious variations on this model would be to use an exponential voltage term and/or an exponential \(RH\) term. Even this simplified Eyring 3stress model has 4 unknown parameters
and an extensive experimental setup would be required to fit the model
and calculate acceleration factors.


The CoffinManson Model is a useful nonEyring model for crack growth or material fatigue  The CoffinManson Mechanical Crack Growth
Model
Models for mechanical failure, material fatigue or material deformation are not forms of the Eyring model. These models typically have terms relating to cycles of stress or frequency of use or change in temperatures. A model of this type known as the (modified) CoffinManson model has been used successfully to model crack growth in solder and other metals due to repeated temperature cycling as equipment is turned on and off. This model takes the form $$ N_f = A \cdot f^{\alpha} \cdot \Delta T^{\beta} \cdot G(T_{\mbox{max}}) \,\, , $$ with
Typical values for the cycling frequency exponent \(\alpha\) and the temperature range exponent \(\beta\) are around 1/3 and 2, respectively (note that reducing the cycling frequency reduces the number of cycles to failure). The \(\Delta H\) activation energy term in \(G(T_{\mbox{max}})\) is around 1.25. 