8.
Assessing Product Reliability
8.1. Introduction 8.1.8. How can you evaluate reliability from the "bottomup" (component failure mode to system failure rate)?


The parallel model assumes all n components that make up a system operate independently and the system works as long as at least one component still works 
The opposite of a series model,
for which the first component failure causes the system to fail,
is a parallel model for which all the components have to fail before the
system fails. If there are \(n\)
components, any (\(n  1\))
of them may be considered redundant to the remaining one (even if the components
are all different). When the system is turned on, all the components operate
until they fail. The system reaches failure at the time of the last component
failure.
The assumptions for a parallel model are:


Multiply component CDF's to get the system CDF for a parallel model 
For a parallel model, the CDF \(F_S(t)\)
for the system is just the product of the CDFs \(F_i(t)\)
for the components, or
$$ F_S(t) = \prod_{i=1}^n F_i(t) \,\, . $$
\(R_S(t)\) and \(h_S(t)\)
can be evaluated using basic definitions, once we have \(F_S(t)\).
The schematic below represents a parallel system with 5 components and the (reliability) equivalent 1 component system with a CDF \(F_S(t)\) equal to the product of the 5 component CDFs. 