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2. Measurement Process Characterization
2.3. Calibration
2.3.3. What are calibration designs? Uncertainties of calibrated values

Type B uncertainty

Type B uncertainty associated with the restraint The reference standard is assumed to have known value, R*, for the purpose of solving the calibration design. For the purpose of computing a standard uncertainty, it has a type B uncertainty that contributes to the uncertainty of the test item.

The value of R* comes from a higher-level calibration laboratory or process, and its value is usually reported along with its uncertainty, U. If the laboratory also reports the k factor for computing U, then the standard deviation of the restraint is $$ {\large s}_{R^*} = \frac{U}{k} \, .$$ If k is not reported, then a conservative way of proceeding is to assume k = 2.

Situation where the test is different in size from the reference Usually, a reference standard and test item are of the same nominal size and the calibration relies on measuring the small difference between the two; for example, the intercomparison of a reference kilogram compared with a test kilogram. The calibration may also consist of an intercomparison of the reference with a summation of artifacts where the summation is of the same nominal size as the reference; for example, a reference kilogram compared with 500 g + 300 g + 200 g test weights.
Type B uncertainty for the test artifact The type B uncertainty that accrues to the test artifact from the uncertainty of the reference standard is proportional to their nominal sizes; i.e., $$ {\large s}_B = \frac{Nominal \,\, Test}{Nominal \,\, Restraint} {\large s}_{R^*} \, .$$
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