4. Process Modeling
4.8. Some Useful Functions for Process Modeling
4.8.1. Univariate Functions
4.8.1.2. Rational Functions

Linear / Cubic Rational Function

Function: $$\displaystyle f(x) = \frac{\beta_0 + \beta_1x}{1 + \beta_2x + \beta_3x^2 + \beta_4x^3}, \ \ \beta_1 \neq 0, \ \beta_4 \neq 0$$
Function
Family:

Rational
Statistical
Type:

Nonlinear
Domain: $$\displaystyle (-\infty, \infty)$$

with undefined points at the roots of

$$\displaystyle 1 + \beta_2x + \beta_3x^2 + \beta_4x^3$$

There will be 1, 2, or 3 roots, depending on the particular values of the parameters. Explicit solutions for the roots of a cubic polynomial are complicated and are not given here. Many mathematical and statistical software programs can determine the roots of a polynomial equation numerically, and it is recommended that you use one of these programs if you need to know where these roots occur.

Range: $$\displaystyle (-\infty, \infty)$$

with the possible exception that zero may be excluded.

Special
Features:
Horizontal asymptote at:

$$\displaystyle y = 0$$

and vertical asymptotes at the roots of

$$\displaystyle 1 + \beta_2x + \beta_3x^2 + \beta_4x^3$$

There will be 1, 2, or 3 roots, depending on the particular values of the parameters. Explicit solutions for the roots of a cubic polynomial are complicated and are not given here. Many mathematical and statistical software programs can determine the roots of a polynomial equation numerically, and it is recommended that you use one of these programs if you need to know where these roots occur.