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Extreme Wind Speed Data Sets: Texas Tech/CSU

Source NOTE: The data described here are part of the CD ROM attached to the report
    DATABASE OF PEAK GUST WIND SPEEDS
prepared by J. A. Peterka for
    Wind Engineering Research Center
    Department of Civil Engineering
    Texas Tech University
    Lubbock, TX 79409-1023
under the Department of Commerce, NIST/TTU Cooperative Agreement, Award 70NANB8H0059, March 2001.

Inherent in the Texas Tech/CSU data are micrometeorological inconsistencies, owing to which the data need to be used with caution.

Peak Gust Data The wind speed database contains all Peak Gust Data available in digital form at NCDC at the time of the request. All peak gust speed (PKGS) data records were extracted from TD-3210 Summary of the Day first order tapes, from the beginning of record through 1990. These summaries of day records were read and reformatted into yearly and daily maxima wind data in XXXXX.PKY (yearly) and XXXXX.PKD (daily) maximum peak gust files, where XXXXX is the Weather Beacon Automated Network (WBAN) number. The meteorological stations from which the data originated are operated by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA), U.S. Navy (Navy Weather Service), U.S. Air Force (Air Weather Service), and the National Weather Service (NWS).
Data Directories The CD-ROM containing the database has 3 data directories and one directory containing results of some processing: TD3210, YEARLY, DAILY, SUPERSTATIONS.
TD3210
  • TD3210

    contains three ASCII flat files taken directly from three 9-track tapes. These are in the original TD-3210 tape format. NCDC documentation for TD-3210 Summary of the Day tapes is applicable.

    YEARLY: contains the largest yearly peak gust with direction and day of occurrence.

    DAILY: contains the record of daily peak gusts with direction.

    SUPERSTATIONS: contains a summary listing of yearly peak gust converted to 10 m height (Yearly Max at 10m.txt) and lists of superstations (Original Superstation List.txt) used to estimate basic wind speeds for the ASCE7 wind map (1995 through 2005 versions).

    For a critique of the data and choice of superstations, see Simiu, Wilcox, Sadek, and Filliben (2003), Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 129, pp. 427-439.

    TD-3210 Directory

    FORMAT OF THE SUMMARY OF DAY FIRST ORDER FILES (TD-3210 TAPE)
    Sample Record: DLY00001102PKGSKS19810111990310124b00012bb0224b00014bb
    Note: b=Blank Space

    Position Contents Meaning
    1-3 DLY Record-Type
    4-11 00001102 Station ID 01102 WBAN#
    12-15 PKGS Element Type*
    16-17 KS Element Units**
    18-21 1981 Year
    22-23 01 Month
    24 1 Source Code 1 (Manuscript)
    25 1 Source Code 2 (Manuscript)
    26-27 99 Filler
    28-30 031 Num-Values; 31 data entries follow
    31-32 01 Day of Month
    33-34 24 Hour
    35 (Blank) Sign of meteorological value
    36-40 00012 Data Value
    41 (Blank) Flag 1
    42 (Blank) Flag 2
    43-44 02 Day of Month
    45-46 24 Hour
    47 (Blank) Sign of meteorological value
    48-52 00014 Data Value
    53 (Blank) Flag 1
    54 (Blank) Flag 2

    (55-402 contain repeats for daily values day 3 through 31)

    Replacement values for error correction are located in the record after original values to be replaced.

    *The element types stored in these files were Peak Gust Direction, Speed, and Time. Peak Gust Time (Code: PGTM): Value = b00000 to b02359 in hours and minutes. Peak Gust Direction and Speed (Code: PKGS): Wind speeds are generally expressed in mph through December 1954, and in knots from January 1955 to present. Except for Navy stations which used knots for the entire time period.

    **Element Units:

    • HR = Time in hours and minutes
    • KD = Knots and direction in tens of degrees
    • KS = Knots and direction in 16 pt. code
    • MD = mph and direction in tens of degrees
    • MS = mph and direction in 16 pt. code

    16 pt. code is: 11=N, 12=NNE, 22=NE, 32=ENE, 33=E, ... 18=NNW.

Yearly Directory
  • YEARLY Directory

    FORMAT OF THE YEARLY WIND RECORDS

    Contains largest yearly peak gust data, for stations with WBAN numbers and with PKGS elements in their Summary of Day records that were obtained from the NCDC TD-3210 tape files in directory TD3210. These files were annotated with data record dates, station location and anemometer height history. Annotated data were obtained from the National Wind Data Index, published in 1978 by NCDC and from file 'station.lst' available on the NCDC web site. The files are named corresponding to the station's five digit WBAN#.

    Explanation of XXXXX.PKY format (XXXXX=WBAN):
    Numerical values at the beginning of label lines indicate the number of data lines (location, data set dates, anemometer elevations) to follow.

    Header: Type of data in file

    General Information: Station WBAN Number, Location (City, State), Description

    Station Location: Latitude and Longitude of the station in degrees and minutes. Station moves with unchanged identifying numbers are indicated by additional sets of location coordinates.

    Data Sets: Start and stop dates of each record.

    Anemometer Information: Date provides the month-day-year on which the corresponding height was initially used. For those locations with no dates given, the listed height was used for the complete period of record. Heights are listed in feet, a 999 value indicates an unknown height. Comment refers to the following: R-indicates the anemometer was located on the roof of a control tower, operations building, hangar, or other similar structure. G-indicates the anemometer was located on a mast attached directly to the ground. B-indicates a beacon tower exposure. U-indicates that documentation on the heights was not available.

    Gust Summary: Peak gust data by year and direction. Directions are indicated as values from 1 to 17, Dir 1=N, 2=NNE, ... 16=NNW, 17=All. Wind speeds are in units of mph.

    Date Summary: Date of recorded velocity by year and direction. Directions are indicated as above. Value indicates month and day of the velocity measurement.

Daily Directory
  • DAILY Directory
    FORMAT OF THE DAILY WIND RECORDS

    Contains largest daily peak gust data, for stations with WBAN numbers and with PKGS elements in their Summary of Day records, that were obtained from the NCDC TD-3210 tape files in directory TD3210. These files were annotated with data record dates, station location and anemometer height history. Annotated data were obtained from the National Wind Data Index, published in 1978 by NCDC and from file 'station.lst' available on the NCDC web site. The files are named corresponding to the station's five digit WBAN#.

    Explanation of XXXXX.PKD format (XXXXX=WBAN):
    Numerical values at the beginning of label lines indicate the number of data lines (location, data set dates, anemometer elevations) to follow.

    Header: Type of data in file

    General Information: Station WBAN Number, Location (City, State), Description

    Station Location: Latitude and Longitude of the station in degrees and minutes. Station moves with unchanged identifying numbers are indicated by additional sets of location coordinates.

    Data Sets: Start and stop dates of each record.

    Anemometer Information: Date provides the month-day-year on which the corresponding height was initially used. For those locations with no dates given, the listed height was used for the complete period of record. Heights are listed in feet, a 999 value indicates an unknown height. Comment refers to the following: R-indicates the anemometer was located on the roof of a control tower, operations building, hangar, or other similar structure. G-indicates the anemometer was located on a mast attached directly to the ground. B-indicates a beacon tower exposure. U-indicates that documentation on the heights was not available.

    Gust Summary: Peak gust data indicated by month and day. Speed and direction are listed separately for each year. Directions are indicated as values from 1 to 17, Dir 1=N, 2=NNE, ... 16=NNW, 17=All. Wind speeds are in units of mph.

SUPERSTATIONS Directory
  • SUPERSTATIONS Directory

    All superstation analysis used yearly peak gust data. This directory contains four files. These are:

    1. Yearly Max at 10m: The maximum peak gust wind speed at each station each year is listed with its date of occurrence, anemometer height, and speed corrected to 10 m. Speeds are listed in mph. Correction to 10 m is based on a 0.11 power law:

        Vgust(10 m) = Vgust(Za) * (10.0/Za)0.11

      where Za is the anemometer height in m and Zgust is the the maximum peak gust wind speed. This correction is equivalent to a peak gust logarithmic profile with an effective roughness length of 0.0015 m.

    2. Original Superstation List.txt:

      This file contains a list of stations contained in the 144 superstations used to produce the wind maps in Peterka, J. A. and S. Shahid (1998), "Design Gust Wind Speeds in the United States," Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol 124, No. 2, Paper No. 11627, pp. 207-214.

      NOTE: As revealed by inspection of the superstation list, in a large number of cases the same stations were included in more than one superstation. See Simiu, Wilcox, Sadek, and Filliben ("Wind Speeds in ASCE 7 Standard Peak-Gust Map: Assessment,") Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 129, No. 4, 2003, pp. 427-439. See the following for a further discussion: Simiu, E., Wilcox, R., Sadek, F., Filliben, J. (2005). Discussion of "Wind Speeds in ASCE 7 Standard Peak-Gust Map: Assessment," Journal of Structural Engineering, 131(6), 994-996 and Simiu, E., Wilcox, R., Sadek, F., Filliben, J. (2005). Closure to "Wind Speeds in ASCE 7 Standard Peak-Gust Map: Assessment," Journal of Structural Engineering, 131(6), 997-998.

Known Errors KNOWN ERRORS IN NCDC SOD GUST RECORDS

In 1991, Jon Peterka at Colorado State University obtained all National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) gust data through 1990. In 1992, M. Changery at NCDC checked on some of the data and found keying errors. Original data are listed in mph (data was convered to mph upon extraction). Corrections are listed in knots (kts) as M. Changery found them in the data records; the data files on the CD-ROM contain the corrected values in mph.

      ID     STATION       ST    MO   DY   YR   ORIGINAL CORRECTED
                  GUST, MPH   GUST, KTS

      03124   Ft Huachuca   AZ   12   26   1965   139      12
                                          
      12912   Victoria      TX    9   11   1961   149      94

      13740   Richmond      VA   10    3   1959   103       9
                  1    2   1960   103      9
                  8   27   1973   127      11
                 10   21   1977   255      10
      13753   Atlantic City NJ     7   2   1948   126      24
      13755   Chincoteague   VA   10   3   1952   155      27
                 10   10   1952   155      22

      13771   Philadelphia   PA    9  24   1951   152      32

      14821   Detroit        MI    1   1   1958   156      36

      26407   Eielson Field  AK       20   1952    88       8
                  5    8   1955   103      9
                  5    2   1955   103      9
                  6   29   1958   103      11
      93830   Atlanta        GA   10  13   1951   144      26
      93834   Columbus       OH    6   3   1949   127      11
      93839   Memphis        TN    4   3   1968   123      107


      WIND SPEEDS GREATER THAN 130 MPH THAT HAVE NOT BEEN CORRECTED.
      03850   Cairns Field   AL   10   26  1969   295
                  10   16   1969   284
      
      03852   Valparaiso     FL   10    8  1969   294
                  10   16   1969   288
      
      03875   Fort Stewart   GA   10   24  1969   242
                  10   11   1969   295
      
      12826   Homestead      FL    9    8  1965   138   HURRICANE
      
      12924   Corpus Christi TX    8    3  1970   161   HURRICANE
      
      13752   Annapolis      MD    1   24  1948   254
      
      13755   Chincoteague   VA   10   11  1952   143
                  10    9   1952   143
                  10   17   1952   133
                  10    6   1952   133
                  10    5   1952   141
                  10   27   1952   141
                  10   30   1952   135
                  10   19   1952   135
                  10   22   1952   131
                  10    2   1952   164
                  10   21   1952   141

      13812   Columbus       OH   11   28  1969   280
                  11   24   1969   290

      13894   Mobile         AL    6  25   1966   188

      13923   Perrin         TX   11  30   1969   287
                  10   29   1969   264

      13957   Shreveport     LA    2  26   1953   170

      13985   Dodge City     KS    2  27   1989   203

      14710   Manchester     NH    8  20   1953   150

      23039   Las Cruces     NM    7  26   1962   172

      23050   Albuquerque    NM    9  25   1976   318

      93830   Atlanta        GA   10  16   1951   138
                  10   31   1951   138
                  10   29   1951   131
                  10   28   1951   138
                  10   19   1951   135

      93831   Beaufort       SC    9  29   1959   138   HURRICANE
      
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