1. Name of Standard. Metropolitan Areas (including
PMSAs, and NECMAs), (FIPS PUB 8-
2. Category of Standard. Data Standards and Guidelines, Representations and Codes.
3. Explanation. This standard specifies titles, components, and identification codes for the Metropolitan Areas (MAs) of the United States and Puerto Rico, including units called Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSAs), and Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas (PMSAs), and related units called New England County Metropolitan Areas (NECMAs). The general concept underlying Metropolitan Areas is that of a core area containing a large population nucleus together with adjacent communities having a high degree of economic and social integration with that core. This revision incorporates minor editorial changes and technical changes that have been issued in change notices and supersedes FIPS PUB 8-5 in its entirety.
4. Approving Authority. The Secretary of Commerce.
5. Maintenance Agency. Office of Management and Budget, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Washington, DC 20503.
The maintenance agency is responsible for the content of the standard and will provide the National Institute of Standards and Technology with information on adopted changes. Change notices to the standard will be issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Users of the standard who need to be notified of changes may complete the change notice request form included in this publication and return the form to the address indicated.
6. Cross Index.
a. FIPS PUB 5-2: Codes for the Identification of the United
District of Columbia and the Outlying Areas of
the United States, and Associated Areas;
b. FIPS PUB 6-4: Counties and Equivalent Entities of the United States, Its Possessions and Associated Areas;
c. FIPS PUB 55-2: Codes for Named Populated Places, Primary County Divisions, and Other Locational Entities of the United States and Outlying Areas.
7. Applicability. This data element and representation standard is made available for data interchange among executive departments and independent agencies and for Federal data interchange with the non-Federal sector including industry, State, local, and other governments, and the public at large.
8. Implementation Schedule. The data in this standard became effective on June 30, 1983. Use by Federal agencies is encouraged when such use contributes to operational benefits, efficiency or economy. Federal agencies that conduct statistical activities to collect and publish data for MAs should use the most recent definitions of MAs established by the Office of Management and Budget.
9. Specifications. Federal Information Processing Standard 8-6 (FIPS PUB 8-6). Metropolitan Areas (including MAs, CMSAs, PMSAs, and NECMAs), (affixed).
10. Where to Obtain Copies of the Standard. Copies of this publication, on magnetic tape, microfiche,or hard copy, are available from the National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161. When ordering, refer to Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 8-6 (FIPSPUB8-6), title and medium desired.
FIPS PUB 8-6
Supersedes FIPS PUB 8-5
1984 October 31
1. Explanation: This standard specifies titles,
identification codes for the Metropolitan Areas
(MAs) of the United States and Puerto Rico, including units
Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), Consolidated
Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSAs), and Primary
Statistical Areas (PMSAs), and related units called
New England County Metropolitan Areas (NECMAs).
Standard definitions of MAs, are issued by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to be used in the presentation of statistics by agencies of the Federal Government. OMB establishes the geographic definition of each area following detailed technical criteria and with the advice of the interagency Federal Executive Committee on Metropolitan Areas.
The general concept underlying these definitions is that of a core area containing of a large population nucleus together with adjacent communities having a high degree of economic and social integration with that core. In effect, the definitions specify a boundary around each large city that includes most or all suburbs in addition to the city itself. Most definitions also include smaller satellite communities and some open country since, in general, entire counties form the MA building blocks. Some areas are defined around two, three, or more central cities.
Standard metropolitan definitions were first developed for the 1950 census and have been updated after each subsequent decennial census. The criteria used for defining MAs also have been revised several times. The current definitional standards were published in the Federal Register on March 30, 1990.
The major purpose of the MAs is to enable all Federal statistical agencies to use the same geographic definitions in tabulating and publishing data for metropolitan areas. MAs are defined in terms of counties because a wide range of statistical data New England, however, the definitions are produced in terms of cities and towns for the same reason (although county-based definitions are also prepared for that region.
The definitions are designed to serve for a wide variety of statistical and analytical uses. Adoption of the areas for any specific use should be judged, however, in terms of the appropriateness of the definitions for that use. While the definitions have been developed for statistical use by Federal agencies, State and local governments as well as private business firms have often found the definitions helpful in presenting metropolitan statistics.
By the 1990 standards, an area qualifies for recognition as an MSA in one of two ways: (1) if it includes a city of at least 50,000 population, or (2) if it includes a Census Bureau-defined urbanized area (of at least 50,000 population) with a total metropolitan population of at least 100,000 (75,000 in New England). In addition to the county(ies) containing the main city or urbanized area, an MSA may include additional counties that have strong economic and social ties to the central county(ies) and meet specified requirements of metropolitan character. The ties are determined chiefly by census data on commuting to work. A metropolitan statistical area may contain more than one city of 50,000 population and may cross State lines.
An area that meets theses requirements for recognition as an MSA but also has a total population of one million or more may be recognized as a CMSA if: (1) separate component areas can be identified within the entire area by meeting specified statistical criteria, and (2) local opinion indicates there in support for the component areas. If recognized, the component areas are designated PMSAs, and the entire areas becomes a CMSA. If no PMSAs are recognized, the entire are is designated an MSA.
NECMSs are county-based alternatives to the city- and town-based metropolitan areas in New England. The NECMA for an MA or CMSA includes: (1) the county containing the first-named city in that MSA/CMSA title (this county may include the first-named cities of other MAs/CMSAs), and (2) each additional county having at least half its population in the MA/CMSA(s) whose first-named cities are in the county identified in step 1. NECMAs are not defined for individual PMSAs.
The definitions in this publication were announced by OMB to take effect June 30, 1993. They reflect application of the published MA standards to demographic data drawn from the 1990 decennial census.
All metropolitan area definitions were reconsidered in the course of this revision process (which takes place every ten years).
There are currently 253 MAs, 19 CMSAs, 76 PMSAs, and 12 NECMAs. Every state has at least a portion of an MA; New Jersey and the District of Columbia are wholly included in MAs. One CMSA (comprising three PMSAs) and three MSAs are located in Puerto Rico. The CMSAs and MSAs now comprise a total of 806 counties and county equivalents outside of New England and Puerto Rico, 576 New England cities and towns (including one Indian reservation serving as a town equivalent), and 53 municipios (county equivalents ) in Puerto Rico. The NECMAs comprise 30 counties in New England.
Further information on metropolitan areas may be obtained from: Secretary Federal Executive Committee on Metropolitan Areas Population Division U.S. Bureau of the Census Washington, DC 20233-3400.
This table lists MAs and PMSAs in the sequence of their
which is also, generally, in alphabetic
order of their titles. The MA and PMSA identification codes
consist of four
digits. Included with each entry are the title,
the "level code" (A, B, C, or D), and the Postal abbreviation and
code for each State and State equivalent in
which the statistical area is located. For each PMSA, the
identification code of its CMSA is given. CMSAs
have both two- and four- digit codes. MAs may be
distinguished from PMSAs
by the lack of a CMSA code included
in the entry.
FIPS county codes are given for each county or county equivalent fully or partially included in an MSA or PMSA. For each MSA or PMSA located in the New England States, the FIPS place code is given for each city, town, or town equivalent included in the statistical area.
This table lists CMSAs in the sequence of their CMSA codes,
which is also in
alphabetic order of their titles. Each entry
includes the title of the CMSA and the titles of its component
PMSAs, listed in
order of their identification codes. The
entry for each PMSA includes its "level code" as well as the
abbreviation and FIPS State Code of each State and
State equivalent in which it is located.
Geographic components of each PMSA are listed. Each county or county equivalent is identified by its FIPS county code, and for each PMSA in New England, each city, town, or town equivalent is identified by its FIPS place code.
This table is arranged in alphabetic order of the States
(including the District
of Columbia), followed by Puerto Rico.
Under each State or state equivalent, its and county equivalents
included in MAs or PMSAs are listed in
alphabetic order. In the New England States, city and town
MAs or PMSAs are listed in alphabetic order
For each geographic component, the MA or PMSA in which it is located is given, along with the MA or PMSA identification code, "level code", and CMSA code, if any. Each geographic component is identified by county code or place code, as appropriate.
This table lists NECMAs in the sequence of their identification codes, which is also the alphabetic order of their titles. NECMA codes are four digits each. Also listed are the "level code" of each NECMA, and the Postal abbreviation and FIPS State code of the State(s) in which each NECMA is located. The counties and FIPS county codes of the geographic components of each NECMA are also listed.
FIPS PUB 8-6
PROCESSING STANDARDS PUBLICATION
1984 October 31
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE/National Institute of Standards and Technology