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1. Exploratory Data Analysis
1.3. EDA Techniques
1.3.3. Graphical Techniques: Alphabetic Youden Plot

Interlab Comparisons
Youden plots are a graphical technique for analyzing interlab data when each lab has made two runs on the same product or one run on two different products.

The Youden plot is a simple but effective method for comparing both the within-laboratory variability and the between-laboratory variability.

Sample Plot Sample Youden plot

This Youden plot of the UGIANSKY.DAT data set shows:

  1. Not all labs are equivalent.
  2. Lab 4 is biased low.
  3. Lab 3 has within-lab variability problems.
  4. Lab 5 has an outlying run.
Response 1 Versus Response 2 Coded by Lab
Youden plots are formed by:
  1. Vertical axis: Response variable 1 (i.e., run 1 or product 1 response value)
  2. Horizontal axis: Response variable 2 (i.e., run 2 or product 2 response value)
In addition, the plot symbol is the lab id (typically an integer from 1 to k where k is the number of labs). Sometimes a 45-degree reference line is drawn. Ideally, a lab generating two runs of the same product should produce reasonably similar results. Departures from this reference line indicate inconsistency from the lab. If two different products are being tested, then a 45-degree line may not be appropriate. However, if the labs are consistent, the points should lie near some fitted straight line.
Questions The Youden plot can be used to answer the following questions:
  1. Are all labs equivalent?
  2. What labs have between-lab problems (reproducibility)?
  3. What labs have within-lab problems (repeatability)?
  4. What labs are outliers?
In interlaboratory studies or in comparing two runs from the same lab, it is useful to know if consistent results are generated. Youden plots should be a routine plot for analyzing this type of data.
DOE Youden Plot The DOE Youden plot is a specialized Youden plot used in the design of experiments. In particular, it is useful for full and fractional designs.
Related Techniques Scatter Plot
Software The Youden plot is essentially a scatter plot, so it should be feasible to write a macro for a Youden plot in any general purpose statistical program that supports scatter plots.
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