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2. Measurement Process Characterization
2.3. Calibration
2.3.6. Instrument calibration over a regime

Assumptions for instrument calibration

Assumption regarding reference values The basic assumption regarding the reference values of artifacts that are measured in the calibration experiment is that they are known without error. In reality, this condition is rarely met because these values themselves usually come from a measurement process. Systematic errors in the reference values will always bias the results, and random errors in the reference values can bias the results.
Rule of thumb It has been shown by Bruce Hoadly, in an internal NIST publication, that the best way to mitigate the effect of random fluctuations in the reference values is to plan for a large spread of values on the x-axis relative to the precision of the instrument.
Assumptions regarding measurement errors The basic assumptions regarding measurement errors associated with the instrument are that they are:
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