2.
Measurement Process Characterization
2.5. Uncertainty analysis 2.5.6. Uncertainty budgets and sensitivity coefficients


Example of uncertainty budget for three components of temporal uncertainty 
An uncertainty budget that illustrates several principles of
uncertainty analysis is shown below. The reported value for a
test item is the average of \(N\) shortterm measurements where
the temporal components of uncertainty were estimated from a
3level nested design with
\(J\) shortterm repetitions over \(K\) days.
The number of measurements made on the test item is the same as the number of shortterm measurements in the design; i.e., \(N = J\). Because there were no repetitions over days or runs on the test item, \(M = 1; \, P = 1\). The sensitivity coefficients for this design are shown on the foregoing page. 

Example of instrument bias  This example also illustrates the case where the measuring instrument is biased relative to the other instruments in the laboratory, with a bias correction applied accordingly. The sensitivity coefficient, given that the bias correction is based on measurements on \(Q\) artifacts, is defined as \(a_4 = 1\), and the standard deviation, \(s_4\), is the standard deviation of the correction. 
Example of error budget for type A and type B uncertainties



















