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2. Measurement Process Characterization
2.1. Characterization
2.1.1. What are the issues for characterization?

Reference base

Ultimate authority The most critical element of any measurement process is the relationship between a single measurement and the reference base for the unit of measurement. The reference base is the ultimate source of authority for the measurement unit.
For fundamental units Reference bases for fundamental units of measurement (length, mass, temperature, voltage, and time) and some derived units (such as pressure, force, flow rate, etc.) are maintained by national and regional standards laboratories. Consensus values from interlaboratory tests or instrumentation/standards as maintained in specific environments may serve as reference bases for other units of measurement.
For comparison purposes A reference base, for comparison purposes, may be based on an agreement among participating laboratories or organizations and derived from
  • measurements made with a standard test method
  • measurements derived from an interlaboratory test
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